Studying Beethoven – Piano Sonata in G (No. 14, Op. 2)

The piano sonata in G (Op. 14, No. 2) still keeps a light and witty mood like it’s counterpart, the sonata in E (Op. 14, No. 1) but brings back some of complex form from Beethoven’s heavier sonatas. However, the sonata in G is lighter than its counterpart since it’s middle movement is a pleasant march and not the solemn, medieval dance we saw before. Beethoven tends to user larger and more complex forms to convey heavy emotions, but this rule is not absolute as this sonata is a comedy of manners.

The first movement is in sonata form, per usual, and right from the upbeat Beethoven employs his usual trick of beginning a subject at the dominant of the intended key, in this case D, before resolving it as opposed to simply starting at the “proper” key itself, in this case G. The main subject is built on the descending triad while using a sharpened leading tone before the mediant; A# to B, while the base is a rising triad. Beethoven peaks his subject at a high C, the subdominant, before extending the descending triad into syncopated descending Am7 notes before falling from D to G, dominant to tonic. Beethoven averts from using C, the subdominant, and opts for a minor sevenths chord, the submediant of Am7 instead.

The transition begins, and Beethoven modulates from G to D during this phase by slowly moving his baseline up the scale from a low G in the base climbing to an A in the tenor, putting the harmony in A so he can resolve to the new tonic key in D. Beethoven builds a simple melody from a descending whole step into a syncopated melodic line, then augments into sixteenth notes, locking the key notes as F#, D, and A, the D triad. The harmonies Am-G#d-A-E7 cycle in this manner, mutating Am, the supertonic, into A, the secondary dominant, until the harmony falls on A and the melody itself rises to a high A.

The subordinate subject evokes the image of two divas as the soprano register is occupied by two parts a 3rd interval part: a comedy of manners indeed. Beethoven highlights the m2nd interval and breaks the melody’s fall at the last moment with a half cadence, then smoothly leads the subordinate subject to developing material, a small gentle arc built from the F# note, the mediant, while of Bm, the submediant, and E7, the secondary dominant, spice up the harmonies. The melody augments into 3rd notes but its key notes are the Bm triad, the submediant, while the base climbs G-G#-A to the dominant harmony, then resolves to a half cadence on the C#d leading tone.

Beethoven lets the two divas return to make their closing statements; rather than short snippets of arpeggios and cadences, we get a long melodic sentence, letting the divas expand the movement and make their presence heard. The soprano posits a question with material based on the F# note, the base provides an answer with an A-A#-B line, their dialogue landing on an imperfect cadence three times before finally settling the issue. The tenor joins the divas and base so a complete SATB chorus of four voices carries out the entire exchange.

So we move to the precore, which Beethoven uses to build up to and smoothly transition to the core; he returns to his main subject, but now mutates the home key into Gm, and even plays some subdominant: Cm. The main subject develops through imitation in the treble and base, the harmony lingering in Fhd7, the subtonic of Gm. We are in the air as to where Beethoven will lead us next, but we know that it will most likely take us down the circle of fifths, which Beethoven does, taking us to Bb, the median of Gm. The two divas return to sing their usual first phrase, but then linger on Eb and Cm, and their respective leading tones. Beethoven uses the base to cleverly fill in all sorts of harmonies that have Eb and Cm notes in them while leading us to the core proper: F7-Cd7-Cm-Ab. Beethoven is resourceful with his diminished chords as always, since they are ambiguous by nature; the F# base implies F#d7, but it is also Cd7 in all but name, with the exact same notes, letting him easily go to Cm.

Beethoven enters the core with a sudden forte while he makes the harmonic transition just as sudden; Cm jumps to Ab without any dominant or leading tone to prepare us. The core’s subject expands on the main subject with a run up and down the scale, meanwhile the harmony jumps to the dominant of the new key before resolving to the new key. Oddly enough, most of the peak notes of the base line are the tonic of the old harmony. Thus we start Ab but leaps to D7-Gm, then to C7-Fm and F7-Bb+4. The triplet riffs Beethoven plays in the treble change with the harmony, making a downward melody that travels from the Eb to C notes, then Fh to D notes; most of these notes are the mediant of their relative chords. Beethoven develops the scale and makes melody’s peak note Ab, the subtonic of Bb; so we have a Bb7 chord, making us expect Eb.

And Beethoven delivers on this promise, the main subject entering on Eb. Most of us would expect the recapitulation to begin at this point, but this is a false reprise as it is in the wrong key, and it functions as the precore for yet another core. Beethoven develops on the dotted note descending figure, now starting on the Fh note, the secondary dominant, and uses it to go completely down the scale to Bb before leading us to D, while the harmonies themselves make use of dominants leading to relative keys to Eb, such as G-Cm7 and D-Gm. Beethoven starts his second core in D7 leading to Gm, and stays on this harmonic scheme as the second core is brief. The treble line goes wild with 16th note scales, an augmenting of the baseline from the first core, while the base is essential the main subject inverted and using a C# note at the end to lead to the D note.

The retransition stays on D7 as far as the base of triplet notes is concerned, this drawn out dominant harmony landing on G at the very end. The melody has a different idea; the motif of the main subject returns in base and soprano lines with various leading tones of C#m-D and G#d-A, and ends up descending through a long chain of sharpened leading tones while developing the theme of descending through triads, descending through the F7a and Am, and finally holds us on a C# note.

The recapitulation starts; the main subject stays the same. The transition does have C, the subdominant, as the harmony in the base, but the melody keeps playing an A note on the downbeat, making the overall harmony Am7, and Beethoven even uses Dm9, D9, and D+4. These interesting harmonies disrupt the subdominant harmony we expect to hear in a recapitulation as the melody keeps playing the “wrong” notes on the downbeat. Again, this is another of Beethoven’s tactics.

Beethoven carries on the subordinate subject and closing phrases as usual, but ends the closing statement with some new material with C harmonies in it, even peaking at a C note before falling down a C triad, at last having some subdominant. The coda, a final reprise of the main subject, always pays some last respects to the subdominant, with the melody not interfering with the C triad at the base with any A note but instead peaking at C to compliment it. The dotted note figure develops into a falling G scale of 16th notes, landing on a low G, the tonic. However, Beethoven uses the base to make the harmony D9, a less common but frequent form of the dominant. Beethoven takes the main subject motif on a tour through a few more notes: D, the dominant, to C, the subdominant, to B, the mediant, ending on an imperfect cadence.

The second movement is a variation on a march, light-hearted and seemingly simple but with colorful dominants and leading tones to various harmonies related to C. The first phrase of the subject is simple enough, turning and rising to F, the subdominant, before falling to D so the harmony lands on an inauthentic cadence. Round two: Beethoven rises to A, the submediant, before falling back to another inauthentic cadence, using an E7-Am progression along the way, then makes another effort; he makes a long climb up the scale, stopping twice on a G harmony to emphasize the dominant, the first progression D7-G, the second Am7-Gd7-G. The melody culminates on C, the subdominant, while the harmony is D7, before falling on G, the dominant.

Beethoven shifts harmonies as he develops his subject through two descending scale figures. On the first time, melody starts at a G note and peaks at a C note, but Beethoven returns to the C harmony to modulate briefly to F, the subdominant. The second time, our melody starts from A, the submediant, and falls to B, the leading tone, with the harmonies changing to C#d-Dm and F#d7-G. Beethoven leads us back to the dominant so he can reprise his subject on the tonic key. So our first phrase comes back but an octave higher, but it doesn’t stop on an imperfect cadence; it quickly protests that little defeat with a sudden forte on G before falling to C. Round two: the melody makes a chromatic rise to F, the subdominant, the base giving us the progressions of C#d-Dm and B-Em. The melody falls from F to C, from subdominant to tonic while the base gives the harmonic context of F-C-G7-C.

I spent so much time on the melody because it is intricate for such a light and childish subject – Andras Schiff said it sounded like playing with toy soldiers – and Beethoven stays very faithful to it throughout the movement. This is not like the Diabelli variations where Beethoven builds his variations from the harmonic structure up; these variations are very Classical in that sense. However, rather than adding notes to the melody to make it fancier as Haydn and Mozart would have done, Beethoven plays around with all the other voices and explores how they relate to the melodic subject.

The first variation has synchopated dominant notes and 8th note scales in the notes, while the melody subject itself exchanges between base and tenor parts, returning to the soprano part at the end while the base synchopates with the melody. The second variation has the staccato melody and base play at different times, a common device Beethoven uses for comedic effect, as he seems to have trouble making his hands play together. The base exchanges between a base part, that largely stays on the notes of C, the tonic, G, the dominant, and F, the subdominant, while the tenor line moves as counterpoint, and often features chromatic notes to flesh out the harmonies. The third variation takes a different style; the funny staccatos are exchanges for elegant legatos. The melodic subject is now made of the peak notes of triplet figures in the treble while the base becomes an elegant melodic line of its own in counterpoint.

The coda begins exactly the same as the subject before any variations happened, but all parts are an octave higher and it abruptly stops at a G#d-Am7 deceptive cadence. Three pianissimo chords follow, then a sudden fortissimo chord finishes the piece. Beethoven borrows this device from Haydn’s “Surprise” symphony (in G, Hob. 1/94), using it as both a prank to make us jump from our seats and a satisfying dramatic finish.

Allegro assai
My Beethoven sonata book labels the third movement in G a scherzo, which is correct in beat but misleading in form. While the movement is in 3/8 time it has a rondo form. Beethoven does not bother to balance out the first movement with a strong last movement, because though it does have witty strettos and tactical fermatas on the dominant harmony, the second movement provides the most emotional weight and technical subtleties to balance out the first movement. This movement; a little flourish at the end likes many Classical last movements in the days of Haydn and Mozart, but still with wit and substance.

The rondo’s main subject is based on a motif: a little sweep of three notes. Beethoven puts many little motifs around the G scale to build a subject. He uses a sharpened leading note like he did in the first movement, peaking at C# and D, the dominant. As the phrase resolves, the tenor moves in 3rds with the soprano, creating F#, a major leading harmony, before going to G. The melody rises up and peaks at D once more, but quickly falls down to G, making the progression F#d7-G with the tenor part. Beethoven develops his subject by turning his little sweeps into triplets, starting at D, the dominant, and finishing at C, the subdominant. The triplets are lengthened, with imitation in the treble and base, the treble peaking at a high C note and falling to an F# note, suspending us in the leading tone and D7 harmony. The main subject reprises its first phrase, rises to D, the dominant, but the melody falls down to G, the tonic, twice.

Beethoven kicks off the subordinate subject with a leap to the distant B dominant of Em, resolving to Em, the submediant of G; the triplets become arpeggios, ending in G and B notes. We hear four calls, three of them in this pattern, the last call progressing E-Am, letting us easily progress to D7, the dominant of G. Beethoven holds us there in suspense and comedy with a long silence, as if he forgot what to play next. The subject in G returns with no alterations, but then we encounter a bridge where the subject’s development material swaps hands, then a stretto of rising triplets put together without breaks, each one culminating in an F note, the subdominant. The entire bridge is in G7, preparing us for a subordinate subject in C, the subdominant, but a suspended D# leading note implies an Em key.

But this is a false alarm. We reach a second subordinate subject in C, made of a singing melody and a graceful slurred arpeggio base, greatly contrasting the quirky and playful subject. The melody builds on rising from C# to G, the dominant of C, then falling back either to C#, the question leading to a secondary dominant, or Ch, the tonic answer. Meanwhile the base notes make a chromatic descent from C to G. Together, the chromatic notes of the treble and base make the interesting progression C#d7-A-Dm-Dd-G-C. The usual Am becomes A instead while through Dd-G we see the strange diminished dominant harmony.

The subordinate subject evolves further as Beethoven takes us through new material; here the melody is built on parallel 3rds falling from G to D. We also see Beethoven stick a leap to A, the submediant, to briefly delay the final D note, another trope he often employs. The base assumes a similar melody through the tenor part, the Eb notes mutating the tonic into Cm. The base at this point uses leading notes to bring about F#d and D7, especially when it rises in scales build on G and F# notes, implying a return to the key of G. However, the subordinate theme reprises its role, using G7-C progressions and using subdominant to tonic leaps to lead us to new material in C.

We encounter the main subject again, but in C; the false reprises peaks on the dominant, then the soprano and tenor fall a long way in thirds, their path built on the C and F#d triads using that resolving cell in the main subject. Then the true main subject returns in G with no change. Beethoven leads us to another bridge, similar as the first one. The strettos are in D7 but are then softened with F#d scales and a C chromatic scale. Beethoven tricks us with another false reprise in F, resolving it with a D7-Am7 deceptive plagal cadence, if such a thing even exists. He transitions to the key of G with small dotted notes falling from C, the subdominant of G, to G, the tonic. The alto rises from G to C, falling to C; the harmony returns us to G through the secondary dominant A7-G-D7-G, even sneaking in an in-between harmony.

The third subordinate subject uses triplets in the keys of G or D7, but the peak note is always D, the dominant. The thematic material itself is in the base, built on leap up a 6th and a leap down an octave. All the cells combined creates a broad melodic form, of G to D, a melodic line we saw elsewhere in this movement. Beethoven concludes the subordinate subject with a crescendo of rising parallel thirds between treble and base, building into a fortissimo of G7 and C harmonies, the melodic peak always in G. Then the melody breaks back into triplets, but with G notes on top, while the base uses the secondary dominant and in-between harmony to progress back to G through C-A7-G-D7.

Beethoven repeats the third subordinate subject, and follows it with a coda. The main subject makes a reprise, albeit with some octaves thrown in, then breaks down into the C#-D leading notes before falling down from C, the subdominant, to G, the tonic. The coda repeats all its musical cells an octave higher, a motif Beethoven used throughout the entire sonata.

Dark Bakura Deck Redux


* Cards still not released in print.

Monsters: 19
1x Dark Necrofear
1x Dark Ruler Ha Des
1x Diabound Colonel
1x Puppet Master
2x Deathcalibur Knight
1x Discraced Mage*
1x Headless Knight
1x Gross Ghost of Fled Dreams
1x The Portrait’s Secret
1x Earthbound Spirit
1x Sangan
3x Morphing Jar
3x Necro Soldier*
1x Jowgen the Spiritualist

Spells: 14
1x Change of Heart
1x Dark Sanctuary
1x Monster Reborn
1x Premature Burial
1x Chain Energy
1x Spiritualistic Medium*
1x Pot of Greed
1x Graceful Charity
1x Spirit Illusion*
1x Grief Tablet*
1x Death Counterbalance*
1x The Dark Door
1x The Shallow Grave
1x Spirit Sword of Sealing*

Traps: 10
1x Fearful Earthbound*
1x Multiple Destruction
1x Spirit Shield*
1x Death Spirit Zoma
1x Call of the Earthbound
1x Dark Spirit of the Silent
1x Cursed Necro Twin Dolls*
1x Just Desserts
1x Rebirth Tablet
1x Mirror Tablet


Monsters: 18
1x Dark Necrofear
1x Dark Ruler Ha Des
1x Diabound Colonel
1x Puppet Master
2x Deathcalibur Knight
1x Archfiend Soldier
1x Headless Knight
1x Gross Ghost of Fled Dreams
1x The Portrait’s Secret
1x Earthbound Spirit
1x Sangan
3x Morphing Jar
2x Morphing Jar #2
1x Jowgen the Spiritualist

Spells: 15
1x Change of Heart
2x Dark Sanctuary
1x Monster Reborn
1x Premature Burial
1x Chain Energy
1x Pot of Greed
1x Graceful Charity
1x The Dark Door
1x The Shallow Grave
1x Gravekeeper’s Servant
1x Spirit Message “E”
1x Spirit Message “A”
1x Spirit Message “T”
1x Spirit Message “H”

Traps: 9
2x Destiny Board
1x Multiple Destruction
1x Call of the Haunted
1x Death Spirit Zoma
1x Call of the Earthbound
1x Dark Spirit of the Silent
1x Just Desserts
1x Malevolent Catastrophe

Zodiac Signs: Modern vs. Traditional


The descriptions of zodiac signs we hear today were not always so. Astrologers of the past described zodiac signs differently, and while traditional zodiac signs are similar to modern ones there are significant differences too. Why, you may ask? It partly has to do with New Age values, the precession of the equinoxes, and a long game of telephone where hack astrologers bowdlerized the zodiac signs into inaccurate caricatures without bothering to study the source materials.

My reference to the modern zodiac signs is Linda Goodman’s Sun Signs, which is one of the cornerstones of modern astrology. My reference to traditional zodiac signs is Constellation of Words, which includes writings from Roman astrologers and descriptions of the fixed stars, which have often been excluded in astrology.

Zodiac Elements
Zodiac signs in the past didn’t have “elements” like they do today, but trigon diurnal and nocturnal rulers that supposedly impart a general character on the zodiac signs.

Aries, Leo, Sagittarius Diurnal: Sun, Nocturnal: Jupiter

Modern descriptions often seem to give the “fire” signs a naive, happy-go-lucky idiot vibe, and generally describe them as being large-hearted and without guile. Traditional descriptions did not do this, but described the “fire” signs as martial and authoritarian, heavily valuing their pride, wealth, and social status.

Aries (Mars ruler, Sun exalted): Much mention is made of dictatorship and violence; a bilious character overall, as well as the collecting of money and gaining of wealth. Manilius gives the sign a riches to rags story, rising to become a prince only to befall a calamity reducing him to a pauper.

Leo (Sun ruler): Obviously associated with the Sun, therefore given a very kingly description. Leo is described as loving to be in the spotlight and putting on a show of wealth, much like in modern descriptions. But no mention is made of a generous, humanitarian spirit; but of a character who will rapaciously conquer his rivals and add to his own power.

Sagittarius (Jupiter ruler): Described as dreadful warrior who will go to great lengths to claim supremacy, to be the very best, and suffer greatly to realize his ambitions. Sagittarius is associated with the mastery and taming of wild beasts, and also of civilizing and cultural institutions, which modern astrologers do acknowledge. Of the “fire” signs, Sagittarius gets the worst “silly clown” treatment by modern astrologers, while ironically ancient astrologers described the sign with deathly seriousness; “dreadful Sagittary” as Shakespeare put it, or untamed destructive wildness, was a common trope associated with the sign.

Taurus, Virgo, Capricorn Diurnal: Venus, Nocturnal: Moon
Modern descriptions give the signs a very practical bent of being cautious, conservative, wanting money and status, and wanting safety. This kind of fits the ancient description, but kind of doesn’t. The ancients do describe Taurus and Capricorn as doing thankless hard work, but wealth gain is not mentioned, just the suffering inherent in life. Emphasis is also placed on civic service and the joys inherent with giving to and exchanging with people, especially on Virgo.

Taurus (Venus ruler, Moon exalted): Again, Taurus is solid, steady, and hard-working, but no mention is made of wealth gain, or Taurus being interesting in gaining wealth and status. Ancients associate the sign with Venus, and thus with love, sex, and fertility, but the free love of Venus here is described as Dionysian and subversive of marriage and familial ties. Not exactly docile and conservative.


Virgo (Mercury ruler): Ancients describe the usual attention to detail, the hard work, the perfectionist nature, and so forth. But the ancient description places a large emphasis on Virgo serving others and occupying a civic role, bascically being a gopher, but one with courage and tactical brilliance. Modern astrology, however, makes Virgo to be very stuck-up and anal. Ancient Virgo was not a shrewish old maid, but a lively girl.

Capricorn (Saturn ruler, Mars exalted): The traditional description by Manilius is restless and hard-working, but also of a cheerful demeanor, made “a slave to Venus” in youth. This personality description is partly based on nature, since (at least in the years of Rome) the Sun enters Capricorn and begins its resurrection, in contrast to the falling darkness and death cycle that happens when the Sun is in Sagittarius. 

Gemini, Libra, Aquarius Diurnal: Saturn, Nocturnal: Mercury

Modern descriptions put traits such as “communication and mobility” in the forefront when describing the “air” signs, and a modern astrologer is quick to join the heavy intellectual nature of the “air” signs with superficiality. But traditional descriptions give the “air” signs a far more serious character, since Saturn is the diurnal ruler. The functions of the mind, such as intellect, are also prominent in traditional descriptions, as Mercury is the nocturnal ruler.

Gemini (Mercury ruler): The traditional description is close to the modern description when it comes down to basic character traits such as quick-wittedness, many talents, and versatility. But Gemini is closely associated with mortality (due to the myth of Castor and Pullox, one immortal twin and one mortal twin) as well as Gemini’s reaction against that. Gemini is a gay sign that dispels the heavier aspects of life, has great talent with music and astronomy, and is great with kids.


Libra (Venus ruler, Saturn exalted): Ancient descriptions emphasize Libra’s role as a clear-headed and stern judge, and role in civic life, little description of indecisiveness. But Libra would far rather settle disputes in a dignified and bloodless way than use the sword. Libra is associated with Venus as Taurus is, but Libra Venus is about romantic love, marital ties, and the responsibilities that come with such relationships. Taurus is all about the wild kinky sex.

Aquarius (Saturn ruler): Modern descriptions tend to idealize Aquarius as being very humanitarian and forward-thinking. But traditional astrology allots Aquarius with hard work and the suffering in life as Aquarius is ruled by Saturn, like Capricorn. Manilius mentions “thousand crafts regulated by water”, alluding to the inventive nature of the sign. Aquarius is kindly in character, though other ancient astrologers like Valens ascribe misanthropy to the sign.

Cancer, Scorpio, Pisces Diurnal & Nocturnal: Mars
Modern astrologers go out of their way to imbue the “water” signs with idealized New Age traits such as being “sensitive”, “psychic”, and “profound”. But no traditional descriptions allude to such traits. Since the “water” signs are ruled by Mars, they are thought to be dramatic and passionate but volatile and rash. Even astrologers as late as Alan Leo described them as being turbulent and restless, like water, and ancient astrologers made similar allusions. This clearly differs from the hypersensitive and introverted nature given in modern descriptions.

Cancer (Moon ruler, Jupiter exaltation): Modern descriptions emphasize Cancer with domestic life, child-rearing, and sensitivity, but will sometimes flip the coin to describe Cancer as being a strong public figure. Traditional descriptions of Cancer are firmly in the latter, especially since Jupiter is exalted in Cancer; thus the extroverted life in politics and putting on a show with many different masks. Cancer is associated with the vast ocean and overseas trade. Ancient peoples saw the ocean, the Great Mother, as a boundless and terrible titan, not as a meek and nurturing creature. 


Scorpio (Mars ruler): Modern descriptions will almost always describe Scorpio as secretive, very profound, and transforming through three stages; with martial qualities such as being a tenacious, powerful, and vengeful fighter. Traditional descriptions are about the latter, the former mostly being New Age psychobabble. As such, Scorpio is driven and outgoing, fearlessly rocking the boat, tackling difficult challenges, and rising as the victor. Yet ancients regarded Scorpio as an “accursed sign” and “baleful source of war”. He is impulsive and self-destructive; strikes first, asks questions later, causing crime and bloodshed throughout his rampage. There is little profundity in this fiery sign.

Pisces (Jupiter ruler, Venus exalted): Your typical modern astrologer will describe Pisces as a sensitive doormat, feeling psychic vibrations, and being very caring to all people and animals. The traditional description is very different; Pisces, like Cancer, is associated with the vast ocean, in this case with naval warfare. Manilius goes out of his way to describe the sea as foaming with blood. The constellation of Pisces itself is made of two fishes violently tugging away at each other. Pisces is very friendly, but also a restless wanderer, always sailing the seven seas looking for new places, ready to change course at the drop of a hat.  

Yugioh Created Cards (Duels 8 & 9)

NOTE: I try to keep the number of created cards down to 3 at most, unless the created cards are part of a unique archetype of my making. The Nordic archetype has always been the most awkward for me. If it wasn’t for the plot I would favor Naturia over Nordics in an instant.

Mathias’ Cards

Effect Shutdown
Quickplay Spell

  • Negate the activation of your opponent’s monster’s effect, and destroy it.
  • Skip your next Draw Phase.

Law of the Aesir
Continuous Trap

  • Once per turn, during either player’s turn: target one “Aesir” monster you control; it is unaffected by all card effects, except this one, until the end of the turn.
  • During your Standby Phase: banish 1 “Nordic” monster from your Graveyard (not optional). If you cannot, destroy this card.
  • If this card was destroyed and sent to the Graveyard by your opponent’s card effect: add 1 “Nordic” card from your Deck to your hand.

Draugalf of the Nordic Alfar
DARK/Spellcaster/LV 4/ATK 1300/DEF 800

  • You can Special Summon this card from your Graveyard in Attack Position by Tributing one Nordic monster you control.
  • If you Special Summoned this card from your Graveyard: you can Special Summon 1 Level 3 or lower “Nordic” monster from your Graveyard in Attack Position.

Weevil’s Cards

Insect Empress
EARTH/Insect/LV 8/ATK 2200/DEF 2400

  • Increase the ATK of this card x200 for every Insect in your field and Graveyard.
  • You must Tribute 1 monster you control to attack with this card. During the End Phase, if this card destroyed an opponent’s monster by battle this turn: Special Summon 1 “Insect Egg Token” (Insect-Type/EARTH/Level 1/ATK 100/DEF 100).
  • If this card would be destroyed (battle or card effect): you can Tribute 1 “Insect Egg Token”, and it is not destroyed.

Golemgoroth’s Roar

  • Target 1 EARTH monster you control: Tribute all other monsters you control and increase the selected monster’s ATK x1500 for each monster Tributed, until the end of this turn.

Yugioh the Dark Dimension – Duel 9

Duel 9 – Valiant Effort

Mathias: 3400 | Weevil: 6200

WEEVIL’S TURN: “I draw!” Perfect, exactly the card he hoped for to make a perfect victory! “I activate my two Fruitflies to steal Odin and Thor.” Watching his great monsters controlled by someone as weak as Weevil gives Mathias something close to heartbreak, something he had not felt in nearly a century. Even the old masters Pegasus and Kaiba see the move in shock; Pegasus is pleasantly bemused while Kaiba seethes at the blasphemy of Weevil controlling god cards.

“I activate Odin and Thor’s effects to protect them.” Weevil watches his gods bathe the field in their magic with a contentment alien to him for many years. “Naturia Exterio, destroy Mathis’ facedown monster!” The turquoise king of beasts rips apart a tiny rodent hiding underneath the facedown card like a burrow.

“You triggered Super-Nimble Mega Hamster, letting me summon Tanngrisnir of the Nordic Beasts from my Deck.” Mathias explains as he plays another monster facedown. Weevil commands Thor to smash the card with its fist, squashing the poor goat flat, which lets Mathias Summon two Nordic Beast Tokens. Annoyed, Weevil has Odin throw one of the Nordic Beasts out of the arena, and decides to add insult to injury.

“You will never get your Nordic Gods back; I tribute Odin and Thor to Summon Insect Empress!” The giant Nordic Gods dissipate into a winter storm of hail and snow as a queen ant of titanic size takes all the space in Weevil’s field. Weevil adjusts his glasses as he is wont to do whenever he thinks himself to be clever. “See, I was very careful to keep all Insects in my Graveyard, because my Empress gains 200 ATK for each Insect in my field and my Graveyard; thus the Empress claims 3800 ATK to her name.”

MATHIAS’ TURN: Pegasus and Kaiba are in further shock; Pegasus more bemused than ever as if tricked in a silly prank, Kaiba more outraged than ever; to think a cockroach like Weevil could throw away two gods like they were nothing. What was Yugioh coming to!

Mathias declares to his opponent, “I should praise you for taking control of the Nordic Gods but letting go of them was a huge mistake. I activate Monster Reborn to revive Thor!”

“Oh no you don’t; I counter with Exterio to negate it!” Weevil banishes a card in his Graveyard and mills a card for its cost.

“I counter it with Divine Wrath, one of my favorite cards! I discard a card to negate and destroy Exterio!” A single bolt of lightning strikes the mighty beast down, leaving only ashes behind, as if the Nordic Gods themselves punished Weevil. “Thor, arise!” Mathias completes his ritual, and once more the hammer-wielding giant stands tall as Weevil, and Rex, melt into a puddle of tears.

Maya wafts the air to her nose with her hands as if she cooked a master chef’s dish and circles the fingers of her left hand. Classic antimeta in action. She can almost taste poor Bug Boy’s tears. They must be delicious. As for the look on Kaiba’s face; he looks like he took a laxative for once.

Weevil did not give up yet. “I’ll banish your precious Thor with Bottomless Trap Hole!” But he sells himself short as his trap simply vanishes in thin air. When Weevil cannot figure out why, Mathias clues him in, “Your Fruitflies lowered Thor’s ATK so low your trap couldn’t banish him.

“If I may continue, before I was so rudely interrupted.” I Tribute my Nordic Beast Token to Summon Draugalf of the Nordic Alfar from my Graveyard, as I discarded it through Divine Wrath, and use its effect to revive my Tanngrisnir.” A dark, undead elf devours and dissolves the Nordic Beast as it resurrects itself, bringing back a white goat with it. “I activate Phantom Knight Gloves, the first monster you destroyed, banishing it from the Graveyard to mill The Phantom Knight of Ancient Cloak, and then I activate it to banish it to add The Phantom Knight of Silent Boots to my hand, and I Summon it.” A ghostly and silent ninja slips out of the darkness into the light.

“I tune Draugalf, Tanngrisnir, and Silent Boots to Synchro Summon Loki, Lord of the Aesir!” Mathias’ monsters rise to the heavens and the trickster god condescends to grace his field in exchange for the sacrifices. “I activate Thor’s effect!” To which the hammer-wielding god smashes the field, crippling all of Weevil’s insects, allowing the Nordic Gods to regain their full strength. “Thor, destroy the Queen!”

Weevil has one more card up his sleeve. “I play Golemgoroth’s Roar and sacrifice all my Fruitflies!” His empress of Insects ruthlessly, gruesomely devoured her servants to gain unfrequented strength.

“You’re Empress will gain 4500 ATK in the process; so Loki, negate that trap!” The Nordic God zaps her with an aerosol can he conjured from thin air, the empress shriveling away from the poison. “Raid, kills them dead.” Loki seems to have a sense of humor too; he even gestures to Thor, as if letting him finally attack, to which the gruff, no-nonsense Thor gladly did, dramatically using his hammer as a fly swatter to finish the job. (Weevil LP 6200 à 4900) “Loki, strike Weevil directly!”

“OH NOOOO!!!” Weevil raves in complete horror and disbelief, his hands and mouth locked into a pose from The Scream painting, before Loki shocks him into a dizzy mess with a jolt of black magic from its finger, making Weevil twitch as an insect sprayed with a can of Raid. (Weevil LP 4900 à 1500)

WEEVIL’S TURN: But Weevil still persists. “I set a card facedown and end my turn.”

MATHIAS’ TURN: “I activate Thor’s effect, now Thor, attack his facedown!” The burly god eagerly smashed a Naturia Cherry flat, turning it to jam. This let Weevil Summon two more Naturia Cherry facedown, and Mathias forces Loki to make quick work of one of them. “I set a card facedown. Make your last turn count, Bug Boy.”

WEEVIL’S TURN: “I am the strongest, the most resilient creature there is, like the cockroach. I will survive, and no matter what happens I will always come back to annoy you like the pest I am!”

“You got it, Weevil!” Rex jumped and shouted from the sidelines. “Show him whose boss!”

“Um, nobody has compared themselves to a cockroach like it was a good thing, but if it works for you, dude, sure. Whatever.” Mathias must concede this odd self-praise as beyond his understanding.

“I activate Monster Reborn to Summon Naturia Mosquito from my Graveyard!” The typical ankh appears on the field and resurrects a cute mosquito with wide cartoon eyes. Mathias wondered for a second when he last saw the Mosquito but soon realized Weevil milled it when he played Naturia Marron on his very first turn. He concedes to Weevil again; that was pretty clever.

Weevil explains his plan, “Mosquito is weak but any battle damage from a Naturia monster goes back to you, meaning you’ll lose the duel. Naturia Mosquito, attack Thor!” His petty bug rushes over to annoy the stern warrior Nordic God. The audience is truly tense as this is the third time today it seemed like Weevil would actually win. The world truly becomes upside down. Cats chase dogs. Weevil is a champion. Trump isn’t president. Israel and Palestine coexist in peace.

Time to end the party, setting things right; Mathias reveals his trap, “I play Skill Drain; I pay 1000 Life to negate all monster effects.” (Mathias LP 3400 à 2400) Thor swats the mosquito with his hammer in comical fury, putting Weevil’s ambitions to rest. (Weevil LP 1500 à 0)

Mathias: 2400 | Weevil: 0

Isono thrust his hand in the air; the referee announced, “Mathias Blackheart wins the second quarterfinal duel! Duelists, let the sun decide the next two contestants!” The remaining four finalists did as they were told; the sun decreed that Stella Nova duel against Tamas Vargas.

Tamas showed little interest, flicking away dirt from his nails. He seemed to speak more to himself than the outside world. “I’m lucky to face women in my next two duels. Beating them won’t be hard; I’d rather duel a retard like Weevil if I wanted a challenge.”

Yugioh the Dark Side of Dimensions – Duel 7

Duel 7 – Courage from the Cowardly Lion

Mokuba swiftly ordered the best medical team Kaibacorp had to offer to tend to Hannibal’s unmoving body. Mathias truly wished his companion Ivy was here so she could heal the body through her Ka and revive the person within, but, and Mathias hated the idea, Ivy could only work her magic if Hannibal was alive. A dead man was impossible to reach; Mathias knew only One, a perfect being, who brought back the dead. The helpless Mathias took much coaxing from Stella and Mokuba to let go of his friend’s body so the doctors might save him, so he let them with great reluctance carry Hannibal to an emergency room.

Maya watched the procession of doctors, nurses, and body in silence, unmoved, while Matthew gloated at his victory; the vanquishing of his prey with his dark magic gave him an exalted rush he always wanted in his life and strength as his shadow powers grew. Did Yugi face such a runaway train in his Battle City? It was terrifying to watch. Maya always felt a rage inside her, a fire held back like a corked volcano; perhaps Matthew is what she would look like once that volcano destroyed itself in an eruption.

Kaiba barked his orders, “Don’t go anywhere next, shrimps! Raise your Millennium Item cards in the air and let the sun decide the next duelists!”

Mathias could not believe Kaiba’s callousness, for he knew Kaiba to be a cold man but never did he imagine such cruelty. Ready to tear that man apart and his smug foppish friend, he would have jumped but felt the barrel of a gun on his back. “I’m sorry, Mathias.” Isono said, his apology genuine. “But if Kaiba wishes the duels to go on, they will go on.”

The finalists reluctantly put their cards in the air, waiting for the sun to give its verdict. It soon did; gold light from Mathias’ and Weevil’s cards hit the floor. Isono announced, “It is settled! Mathias Blackheart versus Weevil Underwood! The duel will commence within fifteen minutes sharp!” Weevil ran away with Rex in an instant, knowing just how strong Mathias was and how weak they were in comparison, but Mathias did not care. He hurried to the medical room, Stella and Maya trailing behind him.

The doctors had tended to Hannibal’s body as best he could, their leader explaining Hannibal’s state to Mathias. He was not dead but in a coma. Mathias was deeply relieved to hear the news but he knew it meant his friend’s life now completely depended on Matthew’s defeat. If Matthew did not fall his dark spell would not be undone, and Hannibal would never waken. Mathias placed a gentle hand on the body’s brow. “I promise to save you.”

Stella decided to confront Maya at this point. She knew her well enough, or so she thought. “I don’t understand you. Don’t you feel any pain in your heart, any pain at all for Hannibal’s suffering?”

Maya had a hard time telling her, “I don’t, but I don’t know why.”

“Bullshit!” Stella rebuked her. “You hated his philosophy of living in penance, so you thought he was better dead. Why would that matter to you anyway? What did you do, kill someone?”

Maya turned her back to her former lover, pressing her forearm against the wall and her head on it, breathing deeply. She had to accept what she did, and do so by telling the truth. She faced Stella gain, saying. “I will, but take off your pink contacts first.”

Stella did not bother to ask why because she already knew, so she did so, revealing her true eyes; they were as clear and blue as the sky itself. Maya said, every word heavy but somehow managing to speak, “I killed Heishin, the dictator of Egypt, when we sacked Cairo, freeing the nation. He kidnapped me and threw down a dark pit, which I stayed in for three days, believing I would die. – My ribs are still broken. – I hated Heishin, so I killed him. I saw him tell his son he loved him before I sent a bullet in his brain without blinking. You would think the lights in his eyes would vanish as the soul does after death, assuming there is a soul, but his eyes stayed bright with the same emotion they had a moment before. It was terrifying; like he was a zombie.”

Stella stepped a pace backward on hearing such gruesome details. A lesser woman would have demonized Maya as a monster for killing a man but Stella understood the circumstances that pressured Maya to become a killer. She felt relieved, to be honest. “You were more open to me, honest to who you are, now than at any point when we were together. You were always guarded. Even when we had sex, you never connected your heart to mine; you only pleasured my body.”

“I don’t do dating or relationships. I thought I made that clear the moment we met.” Maya explained to her like she was a teenaged girl. “As far as I’m concerned, friendship is one thing while sex is another, and the former does not imply the latter in any way; it does not even imply love. I fucked enough people over the years to put Lizzie Lape to shame, but fucking them did not mean I cared for any of them in any way unless I valued them more deeply, valued them as friends, outside of that.”

“Seeing how you pump and dump every man or woman that arouses you, I am shocked, in retrospect, you managed to be faithful to me for a year. Have you ever loved another person in your life, or at least cared for them beyond their use to you? Or do only feel the low emotions of hatred, pride, lust, jealousy, and excitement? Are you a human being, or only a reptile that can speak?”

Maya lowered her voice into a soft growl. “Nothing is more pitiful than a woman in love, if such a thing exists. The one thing I hate most about my sex is their pathetic romantic fantasies; they choose idiot partners based on it rather than anything remotely involving reason, then wonder why men resent them and women are unhappy.”

Stella was aghast. “Talk about internalized misogyny! But that makes sense. You appear to be a radical progressive, what with being a black Jewish woman who defeated score after score of entitled American white dudes, but act like a female CEO. You’re a Queen Bee, Maya. You hate other women because you see them as a threat to you. I expected Audre Lorde. I got Hillary Clinton.”

Maya thought in a flash that perhaps she should “open her heart” and grab the bitch by the mouth, but she did not. Either way, she lost it. “Take your third wave feminist garbage somewhere else! First, I can’t be Jewish as my mother wasn’t a Jew. Second, if you actually went to your local tournament you would realize how many white kids truly play this came. And third, have you done any real work to help a woman, a Jew, or a black person?

“I have lectured in colleges, debated in meetings, gone to marches, lost three fourths of my livings – my livelihood – in a lawsuit, got punched in the face by a neo-Nazi, punched another neo-Nazi in kind when he tried hit my face and missed, got pepper-sprayed in the eyes and literally dogpiled by cops in armor, had my addresses doxxed by a punk and got swatted in the same week. I did everything in the last four years to change this game, to break the corporate hierarchy so prep school kids like Matthew did not control every piece of the metagame and rule unchallenged. Nothing worked, and do you why? It was because everyone was like you; you complained at Starbucks, you blogged at Jezebel, you whined about the pay gap and women at STEM, and so forth. But did you suffer to make any change happen beyond needing to block someone on Twitter or go to the occasional protest? You did not. Your feminism and professional dueling career are a balancing act of fame, following, and publicity. Mine never was.

“And don’t you dare lecture me on love either. Do you believe the funny little feeling you felt in your little heart and the fantasies you daydreamed about was love? There is no such thing as love in this world and even it did exist no one would be worthy of it, and I am the least worthy person of all. My mother quickly learned the limits of her ‘love’ for me when my father poured boiling water on her hands.”

Mathias shook his head, groaning. “This is like watching Malik and Bakura argue with each other. Get a room, ladies, and critique your feminist praxis somewhere else, not next to a dying man. And Maya, do your self a favor and get help. You even disturb me right now.”

Stella put her pink contacts back on, and looked at Maya’s dark eyes that lit with Hell’s fury. “I am sorry you are such a unhappy and lonely person. You are not an evil person, but you like to pretend you are so you don’t have to change.” Before Stella left, she informed her once lover. “And tell me what doing a balancing act is like. Every single thing you did for the last four years was a calculated political move. Goodbye.”

Mathias placed his hand on Hannibal’s forehead before getting up. “I really need to pee before I find Weevil and make him duel me. I can’t believe I have to babysit that dork. My friend nearly died.”

Maya laughed a bit. “Talk about a mood whiplash. We will abruptly enter a comic relief scene any minute now.”

Mathias was utterly confused. “What?”

“The audience will get confused if I don’t tell them. And don’t forget how the entire gaming world is watching the tournament in earnest despite – no, because – people are dying. The author will have to explain that sooner or later.”

“Who cares what the audience thinks! Just because you can break the fourth wall now doesn’t make you special!”

“Well I guess it makes sense for Yugioh to be a dangerous spectator sport.” Maya thought out loud. “Loan sharks cut a sports gambler’s finger off if he doesn’t pay his debt and athletes get paralyzed trying to become world famous. What makes Yugioh any different?”

“I don’t care about the logic or philosophy here. My friend is almost dead and I have to babysit a millennial.” Mathias ended the conversation. He met Rex Raptor at the bathroom door only to learn Weevil had trapped himself inside rather than face Mathias in a duel. Mathias could not believe this. His friend was in a coma and he would not be Weevil’s self-esteem counselor! He wrapped the bathroom three times with his large fist, nearly breaking it down each time. “Open up, Bug Boy! I gotta’ go!”

“No!” Weevil shouted across the door. “I have a restraining order against you. There’s no way I’m leaving.”

“I’m too cool to get ever get a lawsuit. You can’t avoid dueling me and getting your ass handed to you by my Nordic Gods. It is God’s Will for you to be his butt monkey and there’s nothing you can do about it. Now open up or I swear in the name of Jesus Christ you will get the biggest swirly in your entire life.”

This threat sent Weevil trembling, and Mathias could even see it from over here, and worse, he knew Weevil would wet himself any time now. It was beyond pathetic. Weevil spoke, “I- I’m really scared! Ever since me and Rex lost at Duelist Kingdom we’ve been nothing but picked on and beaten up. We even forget Yugi and Joey landed us in this mess by defeating us; it’s like our mockery is some existential fact of life. I want to fight in the finals, maybe even win. I’m so excited I made it to finals of the World Championship, the first time in my life! But I’m scared I’ll lose horribly and everyone will make fun of me again.”

Rex tried to encourage his friend, “You can win, Weevil! Even if you lose the finals you can still do a really cool duel. People will at least have to respect that.”

Mathias took his turn; he was sure to make it count. “Weevil, I’m not here to be your mommy or your cheerleader or read you The Little Engine That Could, but I am here to tell you this. This is your very first, and may be your very last, time as a finalist. You can face me like a man and try to win fame and respect or you can walk away and never get another chance. This will probably be the best day in your entire life, so you might as well seize it.

A minute passed. Another minute. Another. And another. Weevil opened the bathroom door, standing as tall as he could. “I challenge you to a duel, Mathias.”

“That’s the spirit!”

“But,” Weevil just noticed his pants felt a little wet and cold for his liking. “I had a little accident.”

Mathias slapped his palm on his face and dragged it down so tightly he nearly pulled his face off.

Studying Beethoven – Piano Sonata in E (Op. 14)

Beethoven’s next sonata, the Sonata in E (Op. 14), is a breath of fresh air following the dark and weighty Pathetique Sonata (In Cm, Op. 13), and it comes with a sibling; the Sonata in G (Op. 14). Both sonatas are lyrical and mild, but sophisticated as ever – Beethoven always has tricks up his sleeve – and are structured as the Pathetique, where a weighty first movement in sonata form is balanced by two other movements. The Sonata in E resembles a string quartet with its frequent four-part writing, counterpoint, and imitations, most easily found in the first movement but also present in the later movements.

Following the idea of a string quartet, Beethoven opens with a main subject in E, with violin parts sustaining long melodic notes high on the treble while the viola and cello parts play a knocking rhythmic motif. The melody rises in gentle open intervals of 4ths, 5ths, 6ths; in essence rising from dominant to tonic to dominant to tonic again. The little flurry at the end with the high tonic note is a frequent trope in violin solos. Yes, the phrase ends on E, the tonic, but it’s unresolved; a question waiting an answer. And Beethoven chooses to answer with a motif played in violin I, violin II, viola, and cello parts; this way he brings the melody back down to earth. In essence, the dominant note, B, leaps down an octave four times.

Now Beethoven is ready to bring all string quartet parts at once, and he once more makes the dominant note the crux of the music, repeating the same small phrases but in different registers, using them to travel from one B note to another to another. The harmony is basic V-I, not too special, but he does use a chromatic rising and falling line for the viola and cello parts in the latter parts of the first subject. It transforms the usual harmonies leading back to E; D#d7 becomes augmented to D#m and B7a becomes diminished to B7.

So how does Beethoven get us to the subordinate subject in B? His solution is to use a variation of the first four bars to carry us from E to Bm. The melody rises up the B scale (or E scale in Lydian mode, take your pick) to the new tonic note while the harmony plays F# but delays resolving it to Bm; instead progressing chromatically F#-E-Am-A#d-Bm. But Beethoven avoids the usual V7-I cadences, opting for F#-Bd instead, while his melody trades between B and Dh notes until finally touching F#, dominant of B. Again, Beethoven highlights the dominant note.

The subordinate subject in B acts as a subject for imitation and counterpoint, especially the descending pickup notes used to get your attention (as pickup notes starting a subject are common to most contrapuntal subjects). Beethoven uses the four voices in chords to spell out three harmonic progressions: D#s4-F#7, F#7-B, B#hd7-C#m-A#d7-B, which avoid a typical V7-I with a secondary dominant (D#s4) and a deceptive cadence (B#hd7-C#m). Beethoven uses an extra sentence as a bridge to take us to the closing theme so as to not make the transition awkward; the harmony is now pretty typical V7-I but the melody itself builds from an F#7 chord.

The closing subject mutates Em (subdominant) from minor to major many times; a technique also used by composers such as Schubert, and as such the melodic line changes from a rising half step (F#-Gh) to a rising whole step (F#-G#). Beethoven then builds a bridge to smoothly return to his main subject, which makes sense in this gentle sonata. Beethoven uses a B scale melody to rise to a climax; a deceptive cadence in C#m, before resolving us back to F#7-B with a leading tone melody. Beethoven then leads us back to the main subject with a bridge using IV-I where the cello part now takes the opening motif.

The development is smooth and straightforward, built on two cores, the second core also acting as a retransition. The precore, yet another version of the opening four bars, takes the melodic line up the E scale, from E as tonic to E as mediant, but the harmonies, the context the melody is in, drastically changes; Beethoven wanders into F7a (Neapolitan), then into diminished chords finally resolving G#d7-Am. Beethoven brings in new material of octaves (based in part from the opening motif and the movement’s obsession with dominant note octaves), and where Beethoven makes a poignant modulation from Am to C. He moves from Am to Dm7, which seems odd until it mutates to D7, becoming a secondary dominant; we now see a D7-G7-C progression as Beethoven modulates to C (relative major of Am). The subject develops; the melody rises to a high F note and cadences to C to mark this transition. The subject develops again; the melody starts in Em but shifts gears to A#d7 to leap up an E note octave in a lamenting call before resolving to B.

The second core, also the retransition, exchanges the opening motif in the base and treble, the new home key now Em. Beethoven slowly winds down with a V-i progression, with some A#d7-B and A-Em (a major subdominant), knocking with B notes the whole time, using this constant dominant to return us to E. The main subject returns in a loud and excited variation, then returns to normal. Now Beethoven uses a different transition to show growth and change in the music, now in C, which surprises us as the melody seems to lead to at Em. This new transition develops the knocking eight notes into a fast rising scale while the opening motif is exchanged between treble and base. Then Beethoven modulates to the subtonic through Chd7-B, using an A# leading note in the cello part to guide us to B. The remaining bars are similar to their exposition counterparts, albeit with a A#d7-B progression.

The subordinate subject remains the same, just in keys a 4th lower. The closing subject has a similar exchange as in the exposition with the melodic line rising a half step one moment (B-C) a rising whole step (B-C#) another, but the harmonies are slightly different; D# mutating between D#d7 and D#hd7. We enter the coda, where the opening motif returns low in the base, the knocking eight notes now in the middle, creating the warm, rich feeling of strings in the lower registers. Beethoven develops the motif with a downward phrase to resolve it, the harmonies and base shift between dissonant progressions, F7-E and F#d7-E (exchanging between Neapolitan and supertonic). The motif moves to the treble, now developing by rising to a high E; the movement makes a quiet return to the tonic.

The second movement is a minuet in Em and is based on a dotted swinging rhythm, leaps up a 3rd, and half steps, giving many accidentals. We see four-part writing throughout the movement, once more suggesting a string quartet. The subject builds around a broken Em chord, the melodic line rising to B (dominant) before resolving. Beethoven uses atypical harmonies, moving to C (submediant) very early, then using leading tones to progress A#hd7-Am and D#d-Em. The first sentence ends in B, hanging, the second, now an octave higher, resolves to Em. We enter a major section in C, the melodic line built on the 3rd (E to G) and repeating G (dominant). Andras Schiff mistakes the progressions here as Plagal cadences (IV-I) but Beethoven always uses D as the base note, making his harmonies Dm7-G (ii7-V). Beethoven then moves the melody through E to F#, the harmonies, A#d-B, hanging on the dominant.

Beethoven returns to his Em subject but develops it, highlighting Dm with drawn out block chords and frequenting on the eight note turn, progressing G#d-Am. He then uses a codetta to draw us to quiet, wistful finish in the high register, constantly using D#d7-E. The music now becomes very contrapuntal; the cello stubbornly on E (tonic), the violin I in leading notes D#-E, the violin II and viola in eight note turns in opposite directions.

The minore part of the minuet finished, we enter the maggiore part in C. Beethoven once again builds his material on the 3rd (E and G), but his melody is looser, moving around broken chords, and connects to the higher octave with a rising broken chord and chromatic notes. Now the melody is in sustained three quarter notes and drops by small intervals of a 4th and 3rd, whatever puts him in the tonic and dominant. The cello part is interesting as it makes a long chromatic descent. The violin II does a similar thing but in smaller phrases. The maggiore subjects resolves to the dominant through Dm7-G, once more the “Plagal” cadence.

Now Beethoven develops his subject in A, with extra counterpoint in opposite motion in the viola part; now the melodic line builds on the G and Fh notes, using what the downward whole step “naturally” suggests to move down a C scale. As surely as Beethoven developed the falling whole step, he develops the chromatic rising cell, taking it up high two octaves, then preparing us for the return to the minuet in Em; the melody falling from E (tonic of Em) to B (dominant of Em), the base subtly shifting like quicksand C-Em-B. The coda of the entire movement proceeds as the second half of the development, but softer, sweeter, sadder.

Allegro commodo
The third movement is a Rondo in E, exuberant and simpler, lacking most of the four-part string quartet writing from the first two movements. We enter the main subject, melody in octaves leaping up a dominant upbeat to E (tonic), climbing up the scale and settling on A (subdominant). The base comes in triplets, in essence broken 6ths, descending the E scale to a dominant pedal, the harmony moving from E to B7. So now the main subject is suspended in the dominant, how do we resolve it? Beethoven introduces a rapid descending scale and four-part counterpoint so the melody falls from A (subdominant) to G# (median), then resolves to E (tonic). Beethoven repeats his opening line again but this time develops his material to transition to B (dominant). He does so by exchanging the descending scale cell in different registers in imitation and expanding it so it so it drops low to D# (leading tone) and high to G (mediant). This lets melody build up to a climax trill A# (leading tone to B) and having it fall to B.

The subordinate subject is very brief, based on the same large open leaps at the climax of the transition, but this time the music is calm even though almost the exact same notes are being played. In a way the subordinate subject is a bit disappointing. The subject sounds like it will begin a counterpoint but the violin II, viola, and cello just fill in the harmony; but at least that harmony progresses as C#m-F#9-B, focusing on C#m (relative minor of E). A small variation follows, and the melody sits on B (dominant of E) as the harmonies modulate back to E through B-F#7s4-B#7, the sustained 4th at F# and 7th note in B signaling a descent back to E.

The main subject returns but repeats differently, leading us to a second subordinate subject that acts as a development section by leaving E to go to G (mediant). The melodic line now reaches higher to touch on Ch (submediant of E), and the harmony follows suite from Am-Gs4. Beethoven expands on his rapidly falling cell, repeating it, letting it drop to lower and lower registers, going G-D-G so we hit the development. Beethoven composes this paragraph to be pretty straightforward. The triplets take the front in the treble, the melodic arc rising and falling through broken chords, the base in octaves; no subject is borrowed from previous material except maybe a fragmented baseline early on, which makes sense as Beethoven quickly moves through many different chords. Regarding harmonic progressions, the development slowly leads us from G back to E, moving from D-G to E7-Am to C#hd7-F#m7-Bm to Dm7-G to B7-Em to B7-C to G#d7-Am to F#hd7-A#hd7-B7. The retransition is really simple; a E-B progression, the triplets rising up a chromatic scale to a high B, hanging on the dominant.

The main subject and transition return, almost the same as before, but modulating to A (subdominant) rather than E as usual. Beethoven takes the harmonies to an interesting route by modulating to F (submediant) through Bb (Neapolitan) with A-Bb-F-Ehd9-F. Now Beethoven takes the melody to D# (leading tone of E) so as to return the harmony to B (dominant), which he does through F7a-D#d7-B7; he moves the harmonies down by 3rds. Beethoven synchopates the main theme into a variation but he brings imitation back as the rising melody that distinguished the main subject now assumes a base role with a descending countersubject on top. Then the main subject (still in the base) becomes a variation moving from C to F# (dominant of B); the harmony starts in D#d7 but moves to B7 instead of E, delaying the leading tone. We resolve into a coda in E with a cell of chromatic notes. The rapid falling scales return, finishing the piece in a sentence similar to the transition. The last harmonies are A#d-B-E.

Created Cards (Duels 4-6)


Matthew’s cards:

Celeste Dragon
LIGHT/Dragon/Level 6/2400 ATK/2200 DEF
1)   If you control no monsters: you can Normal Summon this card without any Tribute.
2)   If this card is destroyed and sent to the Graveyard: you can send 1 Dragon monster from your Deck to the Graveyard. Special Summon this card, but half its original ATK and DEF. If this card would be removed from the field, banish it instead.

Dragonic Desperation
Continuous Trap
1)   Activate when you Special Summon a Dragon from your Graveyard: Special Summon as many monsters as possible with the same name from your hand, Deck, or Graveyard.
2)   If this card is removed from the field: banish all monsters Summoned by this card’s effect. At the end of your opponent’s next turn: send this card to the Graveyard. 

Dragon Mirage
1)   During your End Phase: Special Summon Dragons from your Deck equal to the number of Dragons you control that were destroyed this turn. They cannot attack, and their ATK and DEF are halved.

Golden God Dragon
LIGHT/Dragon/Fusion-Synchro-Xyz-Pendulum/Level-Rank 10/ATK 4000/DEF 4000/Pendulum Scale 13
4 Dragons
1)  If your opponent activates a Spell, Trap, or monster effect: you can banish 1 Dragon from your hand, field, or Graveyard to negate and destroy your opponent’s card.

2)   Must first be Special Summoned from your Extra Deck by banishing 4 Dragon monsters you control of different Extra Deck types.
3)   If this card would be targeted or destroyed: you can banish 1 Dragon from your hand, field, or Graveyard, and this card is not destroyed.
4)   If this card is destroyed: you can send this card to a Pendulum Zone instead of the Extra Deck.
5)   If this card is destroyed: you can Special Summon 1 banished Dragon (ignoring all Summoning conditions).
6)   If this card destroys your opponent’s monster by battle: it can attack once more.

Hannibal’s cards:

Artifact Uraniawar
LIGHT/Fairy/Link 3/2800 ATK/Arrows: top, bottom-left, bottom
3 “Artifact” monsters
1)   Once during your turn: you can set 1 “Artifact” monster from your Graveyard facedown in one of your Spell & Trap Zones.
2)   Once during your opponent’s turn: if this card or a card its Link Arrows point to would be destroyed: destroy 1 Spell or Trap you control; this card is not destroyed.

Forbidden Sealing
1)   Send 1 Normal monster from your hand to the Graveyard. Send up to 2 Normal monsters with the same Type and Attribute from your Deck to the Graveyard

Radio Half Life
Continuous Trap
1)   Once per turn: when one of your monsters battles; banish 1 “Artifact” monster from your Graveyard. Half the ATK of 1 monster on the field.
2)   When this card is destroyed and sent to the Graveyard: you can banish it to Special Summon as many of your banished “Artifact” monsters as possible. Return all monsters you control to your hand at the end of the turn.

Enchanted Exchange
Activate 1 of these effects:
1)   Send 1 Spellcaster from your Deck to the Graveyard; add 1 Fairy from your Deck to your hand.
2)   Send 1 Fairy from your Deck to the Graveyard; add 1 Spellcaster from your Deck to your hand.