A Brief History of Brooklyn: 1800-1850

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General Jeremiah Johnson strode on the western end of an old American village bordering on the East River in 1800. The village, originally named “Breuckelen”, already had two hundred years of history under its belt. Originally founded by the Dutch in the 17th century, it was a prominent trading colony from the beginning because it neighbored the East River. This allowed it to not only trade easily with the mother country for the Dutch East India Company, but also to trade with the city just west of the River, New York. When the British conquered New Netherland in 1664 they won the village from the Dutch, later christening it “Brooklyn”.

Johnson journeyed from the East River shore deeper into the Long Island mainland, conducting a census on King’s County and surveying Olympia. Both were tracts of land further inland that would eventually become parts of the Brooklyn village, and later parts of the Brooklyn city. More importantly, Johnson made many observations on Brooklyn’s state as a village, and the steps it would take to one day become a city. He comments on the significant prospect of building bridges to link New York to Brooklyn and the potential of a developed harbor in Wallabout.[1]

In his publication, Johnson writes on Brooklyn’s potential, “Olympia is… surrounded almost with water; the conveniences are almost manifest. A considerable country in the rear affords the easy attainment of produce.” He comments on the Brooklyn streets, “The principal streets in this village are sixty feet, but the cross-parts are not so wide… Latterly, it appears to have the appearance of a regular town. Edifices are erecting, and other improvements constantly making.” His words on the waterfront are exciting to the future bridge-builders, “It has been suggested that a bridge should be constructed from this village across the East River to New York… This would be a means of raising the value of the lands on the east side of the river.” On seafaring, he adds, “Should such a plan be carried into execution [turning the Wallabout into a navy-yard], it would considerably increase the importance of this place.”[2]

Johnson notes Brooklyn’s small but pithy rural infrastructure. He writes that there are only three public schools, one in Williamsburg, one in Gowanus, and on in Brooklyn Ferry. There are sixty scholars who are taught a basic curriculum of grammar, geometry, and astronomy. However, there are no libraries or bookstores, and Johnson strongly suggests the establishment of a village corporation to establish markets, buildings, churches, and courthouses, among others[3].

Whether he realized it or not, Johnson predicted Brooklyn’s transformation from a village to a city, which happened from around 1800 to 1850. He brings up the erection of new buildings, the constant improvement of the village’s old roads and buildings, the building of bridges to connect Brooklyn to New York City, and the importance of a navy yard for the waterfront. He also suggests establishing markets, corporations, churches, and courthouses. All of these establishments and actions play a role in Brooklyn’s growth from village to city.

Brooklyn’s evolution was not a simple and linear one. In order to grow and flourish, Brooklyn needed to develop in many different directions, forming a pattern of growth, urbanization, and modernization. It developed things as basic as its population and number of buildings, to nurturing its own culture through the printing press, schools, and temperance societies, to building an infrastructure by erecting banks, corporations, and the fire department.

Neither was Brooklyn’s development inevitable. Passionate and powerful people throughout Brooklyn’s history pushed for it to become a city, such as Robert Fulton, founder of the Brooklyn Steamboat Ferry Association, and Alden Spooner, publisher of the Brooklyn Evening Star. While you could argue that Brooklyn followed historical trends, such as urbanization as other American cities went through, it needed people to deliberately to make decisions that helped Brooklyn become more urbanized, such as Fulton jumpstarting Brooklyn’s steamboat trade. Throughout this essay, I argue that most of the events that formed Brooklyn into a city can be placed in three main pillars: building an infrastructure, creating a unique culture, and prominent people pushing Brooklyn from village to city.

Infrastructure and Economy

When Johnson surveyed Brooklyn as a village, the commented how little infrastructure the village had. Over time, however, Brooklyn unified under one or a few political standards, which is absolutely necessary to manage a large collective of people such as a city. There were only a few manufactures, mostly gristmills, breweries, and furniture joints[4]. As Brooklyn grew, it built a range of services and corporations, like the fire department, ferry systems, and major building projects like the Apprentices’ Library. People from around the village start advocating for one fire department or one Board of Education.

Brooklyn did not have many institutions in its early history, and those that existed did not follow a universal standard applied to all institutions. For example, Brooklyn’s Fire Department did not exist until 1788. Before then, firefighters were volunteers who followed their duties as citizens, not professionals who followed an official set of duties and safety regulations[5]. Brooklyn’s education system is another example. At 1800, Brooklyn had only three public schools, but as more public schools were built in an increasingly rapid rate Brooklyn needed a universal standard of teaching applied to all schools. This was why a Board of Education was formed, to apply said universal standard and govern all the public schools through one body.

Historically, the Fire Department is one of Brooklyn’s oldest institutions. As early as 1801, Brooklyn was incorporated as a fire district by an act of the County and in 1824, the fire department doubled in manpower and many buildings and offices were installed to be fireproof, such as the County Clerk’s office in the Apprentices’ Library[6]. The Fire Department became a powerful institution, aiding in Brooklyn’s growth. As the Brooklyn Charter puts it, “The said Fire Department of the City of Brooklyn… is hereby empowered and directed to possess and exercise fully… all the duties of the government, management, maintenance, and direction of the Fire Department of the City of Brooklyn and all the premises and property thereof…”[7]

The Fire Department is one manifestation of an institution growing alongside Brooklyn’s path to becoming a city, and becoming organized and bureaucratized to deal with a growing village. In the 17th century it was a voluntary department. The first firemen were not hired, as in taking a mandatory profession, until 1772, and the Fire Department was not organized until 1788[8]. Eventually, the Fire Department was incorporated in 1800. The incorporation of the Fire Department allowed a more standard set of safety regulations. Buildings were constructed to be fire proof, including the significant Apprentices’ Building. Other government-funded programs followed a similar vein, like the creation of a sewer system. In the past Brooklyn had at most some haphazard and crude water sources, unfit to drain the village or dispose of human waste. That changed when side gutters were built and water and sewer systems were installed[9].

The Brooklyn ferry system was also a big leap to morphing Brooklyn from a village into a large, unified, functioning city. Whereas the Fire Department had more to do with helping to establish a unified government, the ferry system had to do with boosting trade and commerce. Before airplanes, steamboats and sails were the only means for trade and communication to countries beyond the seas. So it would make sense Brooklyn obtaining effective and efficient steamboat businesses in the 19th century was essential to its economic growth. 1812 the engineer Robert Fulton and his brother-in-law William Cutting leased the Clement steamboat, which acted as a ferry service between New York City and Paulus Hook, New Jersey. Eventually, they established their own company, Brooklyn Steamboat Ferry Association with a capitol of $68,000, and in 1814 they ran the Nassau, their very own steam ferry[10].

When Henry Stiles, the author of A History of the City of Brooklyn, himself surveyed the now city of Brooklyn to do research, he devoted an entire tour on the waterfront. From Fulton Street straight from the ferry he had enough material to right a book. It’s not hard to see why, as he very well could have written only about ferries and died with inner peace. As he himself noted, by 1814 the Brooklyn Steamboat Ferry Association began a system of ferry corporations, which naturally became a nucleus of business. As Stiles noted in his tour, the waterfront was littered all forms of trade: fish stands, butcheries, groceries, carpenters’ shops, cloth factories, printers, and book binders[11].

A lesser but still significant part of Brooklyn’s development into a city is the establishment of courthouses and jails. A growing legal and prison system helped keep law and order in a growing village. This reflects not only the growing population of the village but also unifying Brooklyn’s judiciary under one standard. In this case, Brooklyn developed many buildings following one code of laws, including trails, persecutions, sentencing, and jailing. Brooklyn’s courthouses and jails develop later in the village’s history, past the 1820s and continuing well into the 1850s. Why this happens is because it takes a lot of manpower to run a legal system, both in the sense of assembling a police force and managing a bureaucracy to keep order.

From the 1820s to the 1850s, Brooklyn’s population exploded, giving it the necessary manpower. In 1826, the village had a population of 9000. By 1830, Brooklyn’s population expenses were over $25,000 (about $547,000 when adjusted for inflation), with $5,292 for people at the waterfront and about $10,000 for people mainland. Around 1828, close to the time Brooklyn officially became a city in 1834, the number of male inhabitants above the age of 18 was about 40,000[12]. Brooklyn’s population burst correlates with Brooklyn’s transformation into a city and with the rise of Brooklyn’s law enforcement and legal institutions.

In 1824, major developments occurred in Brooklyn. The municipal court was established, which had jurisdiction over the New York State, symbolizing Brooklyn’s growing influence and relevance in the rest of the state. In a few decades the village government vastly expanded. In 1829, the Board of Supervisors, representatives of Brooklyn’s nine plus wards, erect courthouses and jails throughout the village (Ostrander 2013). In 1846, the Supervisors made a loan to provide better care for prisoners in the County Jail and, if land was purchased, remove the prisoners from jail and to the new lands. 1849, the city court of Brooklyn was established. In 1854, the Board Supervisors of the Kings wards authorize the building of a new courthouse. [13].

In 1829 the people of Brooklyn recorded an increase in crime rate. Though Ostrander merely records the trend and doesn’t give reasons to it, it is probably because the increase in population and density. Cities are infamous for their high rate of crime, so to have Brooklyn’s crime rate increase is a strong sign it is becoming a city. (Surely enough, it officially became one just five years later.) Brooklyn also has a growth spurt of temperance societies during the 1800s, especially past the 1820s. People were gaining a greater collective moral consciousness, or at least a growing apprehension of crime and vice, and thus the need to prevent and correct it. Unsurprisingly, a lot of churches were also erected around the same time. The growth of a collective cultural, moral, and religious consciousness is significant because it shows that Brooklyn isn’t merely growing economically but also growing culturally.

Culture, Institutions, and Societies

When Johnson recorded his observations of Brooklyn at 1800, Brooklyn had only three schools and one church, but things were about to change very quickly. For the next fifty years Brooklyn would rapidly become a major cultural center, even rivaling New York. Brooklyn grew culturally through several ways, through schools (public and private), churches, societies, and the press through a lesser extent. Just as Brooklyn united its infrastructure, economy, and legal institutions, under one standard it also united its educational and cultural institutions to cultivate its citizens. Brooklyn began to develop a citywide moral consciousness.

Throughout Brooklyn’s history its Board of Education institutionalizes many public schools throughout the land, building a unified standard for education. However, Brooklyn’s’ citizens were the ones who took the initial steps to build public schools in the first place. In 1812, the Loison Seminary, a women’s society, was formed to create the first public school of the 19th century. In 1816, a public meeting was held in the town hall further the Loison Seminary goal. In May of the same year, due to efforts of the Brooklyn Sunday School Union Society, the first Sunday school opened. In 1818 Episcopalians gathered to create a Sunday school of their own[14].

Private schools also opened, albeit later. By 1848, Brooklyn boasted many private schools for both boys and girls. By the time people talked of merging Williamsburg to Brooklyn in 1848, Williamsburg had fifteen private schools of its own. (Williamsburg was a powerful town in its own right, incorporated in 1827 and officiated as a town in 1840.) By 1854, two major universities formed. The Brooklyn Female Academy transformed into the Packer Collegiate Institute for Girls. Meanwhile, the Brooklyn Collegiate and Polytechnic Institute, an academy for boys, was also created[15].

Brooklyn erected churches at similar speed, especially during the 1840s, because Brooklyn by then was urbanized enough, with a large enough population and number of institutions, to take the time and energy to make ecclesiastic monuments. Brooklyn had a moral consciousness unified enough to build large expressions of Protestant faith.  In May 1834, Ebenezer Methodist Episcopal church was formed. In 1842, Emmanuel (Protestant Episcopal) church was consecrated. 1843 was a very busy year of church building. The (Unitarian) Church of the Savior was consecrated. The Episcopal (Protestant Episcopal) church was consecrated. The Church of the Holy Trinity, Eighth Methodist Episcopal, Mariner’s Union Bethel Church were all established. The First Reformed Presbyterian Church cornerstone was laid and Middle Dutch Reformed Church was founded. St. Michael’s Episcopal Church, the First Congressional Methodist, the First Reformed Presbyterian parish, and Protestant Episcopal Parish of St. Peter’s organized[16].

Societies, mostly temperance societies, formed from 1812 to 1843. In 1812, the aforementioned Loisan Seminary of women formed to create the first public school. In 1815, Society to Prevent and Suppress Vice in the Town of Brooklyn forms and publishes under the Long Island Star, the most influential newspaper at the time[17]. In 1830, the Kings County Temperance Society was founded in Flatbush[18]. In December 1841, the Brooklyn Bible Society (auxiliary to the American Bible Society), the Shamrock Benevolent Society, and the Brooklyn Newspaper were established. In 1843 Brooklyn Protestant Benevolent and Library Association and Laborer’s Beneficial Society, and Nicholas Society of Nassau Island, were inaugurated[19].

Judging by the time the churches were all built, I can make a conjecture of their relation to the schools and societies. From the 1810s to about 1840, the first pioneering societies congregated and helped create the first public schools. Arguably, the societies was where the dream for public schools began, and was where the first efforts to do so were carried out. From the 1830s to about 1850, private schools appeared, as did churches and later societies.

Brooklyn shared a deep Protestant religious consciousness like other northeast American towns, founded by Dutch merchants and having the Dutch Reformed Church branded as the official religion by the Dutch West India Company. In spite of its heritage, Brooklyn was still a village at around 1800, and had yet to really form its own independent religious consciousness. At the time its religious consciousness was “informal”. People acted and advocated for what they thought was right without so much regard to social affiliation, because Brooklyn had only a handful amount of private institutions. In 1800, General Johnson wrote that Brooklyn had only one church.

Later, that consciousness became “official” with the building of churches, private schools and later societies. Both churches and private schools reveal a strong association with a private institution. People define themselves more by the factions they belong to. You can even see this trend in the names of earlier societies compared to later societies. Earlier societies, like A Society to Prevent and Suppress Vice in the Town of Brooklyn and Brooklyn Sunday School Union Society, define themselves more through a mission statement. Later societies, like the Brooklyn Protestant Benevolent and Library Association and the St. Nicholas Society of Nassau Island, define themselves by private institution or faction.

Brooklyn was officially declared a city in 1834 by electing its first mayor, George Hall. Coincidentally, 1834 can be seen as a fulcrum between two sides of a scale. The first side is Brooklyn from the 1810s to about 1830. The second side is Brooklyn from the 1830s to about 1850. Once Brooklyn became a city, its building projects and institution founding really took off because becoming a city made gave its government enough cohesion and power to build such projects. Different private institutions, religious sects, and societies had a better chance of getting the government to act in their interests by lobbying it. By 1850, Brooklyn was a city and a major cultural center, with a unified intellectual, moral, and religious consciousness. Schools, churches, and societies in many varieties sprouted quickly in little time, and became consecrated as institutions, stone monuments of Brooklyn culture.

Powerful People With Lofty Dreams

People, not the environment or a natural automatic process, were and still are the builders of Brooklyn’s history, like all histories. Some people made a bigger influence than others in turning Brooklyn into the dynamic city of the 1850s and today. History never owes its making to any one person since even the most grandiose genius is part of a society built on the backs of millions of people, each of them a part of its character in some way or another. However, there are some people whose named are more remembered than others because they succeeding in big agendas that profoundly shaped the society they lived in. People chose to remember the famous for their deeds for reasons that are sometimes just and sometimes aren’t. In either case, Brooklyn did not “naturally” become a city as the end of an inevitable process. Specific people pushed Brooklyn to become a city.

Robert Fulton was a definite player because he built Brooklyn’s ferry system, which was essential to Brooklyn’s growing trade and commerce. Originally, he, alongside his his brother-in-law William Cutting leased the Clement Steamboat in 1812. They established their own company, the Brooklyn Steamboat ferry association, running their first steam ferry, the Nassau, in 1814. As American philosopher and historian John Fiske wrote, the 1810s were a critical period of Brooklyn’s history, with huge commercial manifestations. Unfortunately, Fulton died in 1815, only 49. He did, however, leave a large legacy behind him as one of Brooklyn’s waterfront architects.

Colonel Alden Spooner was another important figure, publishing the Brooklyn Evening Star, one the most influential during its heyday alongside the Long Island Star. In 1814, Diana Rapalja, an influential heiress from an old family who was politically active, died. Spooner later purchased her property, using it both as a living space and the printing office for the Brooklyn Evening Star, publishing the first issue in 1824[20]. In May of the same year, Spooner proposed to publish a new issue twice a week, which included a census of the number of houses in Brooklyn so far (totaling 1025) and a prospectus for the Brooklyn village. “The great increase of the population and business of Brooklyn, call for corresponding changes in the various establishments which contribute to our interest and our enjoyments.”

His requests did not fall on deaf ears. The village authorities took greater care in areas pertaining to the village’s health, appearance, and welfare by removing health hazards and cleaning the streets. The Trustees passed laws regulating the cleaning of Fulton, Main, Front, Water, and Doughy streets. Spooner soon printed an issue of the Star, explaining that a cart would pass by the streets every Wednesday morning and Saturday morning. When they rung a bell, it would tell people it was time to give them kitchen garbage for them to collect. The Trustees especially requested that people sprinkle the pavement in front of their houses immediately before sweeping[21].

Spooner did not keep his influence restricted to the Brooklyn Evening Star. In 1824, he published the third directory of Brooklyn at the office of the Long Island Star. It contained 1,329 names, 122 more names than in the last directory in 1823. Furthermore, Spooner’s leadership with the press earned him his fair share of political power. Years later, in March 1857, Spooner and was appointed as one of three commissioners by Brooklyn’s legislatures, tasked with mediating financial disputes between the city of Brooklyn and the city of Williamsburg[22].

George Hall, a former military captain, was elected as the first mayor of Brooklyn when Brooklyn became a city in 1834. Previously, he served as a Trustee of the third ward of Brooklyn from 1826 to 1832, and was elected as president of the village at 1833. In 1854, Hall was a mayor candidate of the Know-Nothing Party. Though his opponents tried to use his Irish descent to prove he wasn’t born in America, Hall refuted the accusations. He won the election, becoming the first mayor of the unified city of Brooklyn and Williamsburg[23].

While George Hall claimed many firsts in elections and was the first leader to steer a newly unified city, Jonathan Trotter, a fellow honorary and colleague of George Hall, is better remembered for implementing specific policies. Trotter was elected mayor in 1835 and re-elected in 1836. While he was mayor, he laid the cornerstone of City Hall in April 1836, which was originally the Apprentices’ Library. He opened Myrtle Avenue and made arranged to open up outlying portions of the city. After his election, he unfortunately lost a lot of his wealth in a financial crisis. In 1840, he moved to New York, and while he lived well, he never exerted as much business and political power as he used to (Stiles 1870)[24].

Other famous people clutter Brooklyn’s history, who all shaped the village turned city in their own unique ways. However, Robert Fulton, Alden Spooner, George Hall, and Jonathan Trotter were arguably the most crucial figures from 1800 to 1850. Fulton boosted Brooklyn’s trade at the waterfront, Spooner directed the press and used it to influence policies to an extraordinary degree, Hall held the office of mayor twice for the city Brooklyn and was a decent leader, and Trotter founded City Hall. All the aforementioned people advanced Brooklyn either economically or politically, building its wealth, institutions, and infrastructure.

The people who willfully forged Brooklyn’s history did so by paving a path of many directions, not merely one. Brooklyn’s development, on the whole, was star shaped. Brooklyn became a city by flourishing in many different directions, not by following a straight and narrow path. This is ironic, considering the 19th century industrial idea of progress as a ladder to an ever better future. Even though we, who have the advantage of hindsight, may think of progress differently, it is not too farfetched that 19th century Brooklyn citizens believed in ideal of linear progress.

Bibliography

Ostrander, Stephen M. History of the City of Brooklyn and Kings County Vol. 2. Edited, with Introduction and Notes, by A. Black. S.l.: Theclassics Us, 2013. Print.

Records of the Department, comp. Our Firemen: The Official History of the Brooklyn Fire Department, from the First Volunteer to the Latest Appointee. Compiled from the Records of the Department. Brooklyn, NY: n.p., 1892. Print.

Stiles, Henry Reed. A History of the City of Brooklyn including the Old Town and Village of Brooklyn, the Town of Bushwick, and the Village and City of Williamsburgh. Vol. 1, 2, and 3. Brooklyn: Pub. by Subscription, 1867. Print.

The Charter of the City of Brooklyn: And the Laws of the State of New York Relating Particularly to Said City: Together with the Ordinances Thereof: To Which Is Added an Appendix Containing the Old Charters, Statistical Information, &c. Brooklyn: Henry A. Lees, 1846. Print.

[1] Stiles, Henry Reed. A History of the City of Brooklyn including the Old Town and Village of Brooklyn, the Town of Bushwick, and the Village and City of Williamsburgh. Vol. 1. Brooklyn: Pub. by Subscription, 1867. 380, 381.

[2] Stiles, Vol. 1. 382-385

[3] Stiles, Vol. 1. 383, 384, 385

[4] Stiles, Vol. 1. 384

[5] Records of the Department. Our Firemen: The Official History of the Brooklyn Fire Department, from the First Volunteer to the Latest Appointee. Brooklyn, New York, 1892. Pg. 28, 29.

[6] Stiles, Henry Reed. A History of the City of Brooklyn including the Old Town and Village of Brooklyn, the Town of Bushwick, and the Village and City of Williamsburgh. Vol. 2 Brooklyn: Pub. by Subscription, 1867. 223-227.

[7] York, N.Y. The Charter of the City of Brooklyn and the Laws of the State of New York Relating Particularly to Said City Together with the Ordinances Thereof : To Which Is Added an Appendix Containing the Old Charters, Statistical Information, &c. Brooklyn N.Y.: I. Van Anden, 1846. 118.

[8] Our Firemen, 24, 26, 27

[9] Stiles, Vol. 2. 223-227.

[10] Ostrander, Stephen M., and Alexander BLACK. A History of the City of Brooklyn and Kings County. Vol 2. … Edited, with Introduction and Notes, by A. Black. Brooklyn: Privately Published, 1894. 57-60.

[11] Stiles, Vol. 2. 38.

[12] Stiles, Vol. 2. 201, 234, 236

[13] Ostrander, 74, 95, 96, 97

[14] Stiles, Vol. 2. 11-13, 14, 18, 27

[15] Ostrander, 100, 104, 212

[16] Stiles, Vol. 2. 261, 265, 275, 278, 280

[17] Stiles, Vol. 2. 13

[18] Ostrander, 68

[19] Stiles, Vol. 2. 265, 275

[20] Stiles, Vol. 2. 61-63

[21] Stiles, Vol. 2.  108

[22] Stiles, Vol. 2. 220, 428

[23] Stiles, Vol. 2. 244

[24] Stiles, Vol. 2 250

Easy Employment Inc. Employment Opportunities

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YUGIOH Children of Prometheus 2 – Duel 22: Beyond Duelists

Maya: 5700 || Rex: 8000

MAYA’S TURN: Maya draws her next card and ponders her next move. Rex indeed does have a considerable combo but she can break it with a little forethought and take the advantage; that is, until Rex completes his lock. But that won’t happen! Maya smirks in the smarmiest way she can, “Sorry, Rex. You’ll need to do more than shut down one key card to beat me. A simple trick like that won’t work. I’m not like the shallow duelists we faced; not like Michael, not like Akira. People say I use gimmicks because I’m antimeta but frankly they’re the ones who use one-note strategies. Get out Shaddoll Construct, get out Aqliphort Towers, et cetera.”

“And what’s your point? Get on with it already!” Rex demands, his body becoming more tense and stiff. How did his attack not faze her? Is she so strong she can kill effortlessly kill him off no matter what he plays? He remembers when he watched the American National Championship duel with Weevil four years ago. Maya nearly wiped out Matthew on her first turn with a Zombie swarm. Matthew even played three Judgment Dragons in one turn, one after the other, and they all failed to beat her. She overkilled him next turn.

“You deserve a better enemy, one who plays a higher game.” Maya changes expression, deliberately changing from a smarmy insect to a predator right before it murders its prey. “I’ll give you a higher game.”

Sophia softly nudges Yukio on the shoulder and says, “Is Maya doing what I think she’s doing?”

Yukio nods, “Yup. She’s messing with Rex’s head. It works on poor guys like Rex and Matthew but on better duelists.” He shakes his head. “I’m tired of games. But I do think she’s talking to herself too. When Malik possessed a mime to duel Yugi in Battle City, he talked how duelists were like vessels and strategies like water poured in the vessel. The larger and deeper a duelist is, the more water they can take in and pour out. A great duelist has more than one strategy, more than one way of thinking.”

In the battlefield, Maya thought of the very same tale, and thought to herself, “Time to test my depth, and his.”

To Rex she says, “You asked for it! I activate Raigeki! The clouds of the sky gather together to form a vortex, whirling faster, faster, crackling lightning louder, louder, until it threatens to tear apart the entire field. Rex counters, “I use Infinity’s effect to negate and destroy it!” His cyborg beast shoots it dead in the sky, dispersing it. “That’s your higher game? You seriously thought that would break my combo?”

“Of course not.” Maya replies, “For a skilled player, cards like Raigeki are bait, not the answer. I activate a second Seventh Heaven!” And both duelists and onlookers return to the highest of skies. “And I use Seventh Heaven’s effect. I banish Zsa Zsu from my deck. Then I summon a second D.D. Velociraptor.” A twin of the first fiery raptor appears. “And I use Seventh Heaven’s other effect. Once per turn, I can banish a monster I control to summon a banished WIND monster with a Level equal or lower. I banish my Velociraptor to bring back Zsa Zsu.” Maya’s first dinosaur vanishes, replaced by a smaller one, what looks like the earliest bird. “Since Velociraptor was banished, I’ll banish another Mountain Pterra from my Deck, and since Zsa Zsu was summoned, I’ll summon another Zsa Zsu from my Deck.” Another early ancestor to the modern bird flies to the field.

“I activate Ghosts and Stars. I Special Summon a D.D. Velociraptor, but it’s banished at the end of my turn.” The blood red-skinned dinosaur returns. “Its other effect activates. When it’s Special Summoned, I can summon a banished Dinosaur, so I summon another Velociraptor, and then use its effect to summon a Mountain Pterra.” Another red raptor appears alongside a mighty pretosaur with a wingspan of twenty feet.

“I activate Mischevious Mistuning.” Cries a frightened Rex, “Once per turn, I can change the Level of a monster by 1, so I decrease one of your Velociraptor’s Levels by 1.”

“That scared of Evolsaur Laggia? I overlay my two Zsa Zsus to summon D.D. Volcanoraptor, and use its effect to summon my third Mountain Pterra from my Deck.” The two ancient birds merge beyond space and time to form a smaller blood-red raptor, which flies to a stargate that just formed. Seconds later, it returns with another huge pterosaur. “I use the effect of my first Mountain Pterra, I bounce my D.D. Volcanoraptor and your Cyber Dragon Infinity.” The pterosaur circles both monsters in the air, catching them in a whirling cyclone. When the sky clears, both monsters have disappeared. “Volcanoraptor is gone, so I use its other effect. I summon my third Mountain Pterra.” And the final pterosaur materializes.

“God this duel is convoluted.” Yukio complaints.

Maya concurs, “Tell me about it. This game is like chess. It eats your life and your soul.”

She continues with the duel, “I use the effects of my two remaining Pterras to bounce my first Pterra and Velociraptor and your Bahamut Shark and Black Ray Lancer.” Both winged dinosaurs took to the sky and together swept away all four monsters with a double whirlwind. “I overlay two Mountain Pterras to Xyz Summon Golden Sunbird.” And the Pterras fly together for the last time. A large phoenix flies from the Xyz wormhole in a shower of golden flames. “And I use Sunbird’s effect. I summon your banished Dinomist Rex.” And the hydraulic T. Rex manifests on Maya’s field.

Rex gulps, his stomach feels like its falling down a dark pit. Maya commands, “All monsters, direct attack!” The entire horde crashes into rex, the phoenix burning him and the two dinosaurs trampling him on the ground. Weevil covers his face with both his hands – except to peek through his fingers – it was not a pretty sight. (Rex LP 3000 à 1300)

“Is your turn over yet?” Yukio hollers from the sidelines.

“It finally is!” Maya hollers back.

Mathias comments, his stomach growling, “I really wish this village had some Buffalo Chicken pizza.”

REX’S TURN: Rex gets up. He dusts off his shirt. He declares, “That was a nice, fancy turn you pulled back there, but I will complete my combo and shut your deck down.”

“Big talk for a little man. Let’s see you prove it.” Maya challenges him.

“Challenge accepted. I activate Pot of Eternity. I can shuffle four banished monsters back in my Deck and draw two. I knew you would banish my cards so I put my own cards to take advantage. I set one card facedown card. My turn’s over.”

MAYA’S TURN: This game is over, but she didn’t get to see Rex’s great combo. It’s a disappointing, but at least he put up a small fight. “Go, monsters! Direct attack for game!”

Rex springs his trap, “Drowning Mirror Force! I bounce your monsters back to your Deck.” Maya’s great phoenix swoops in over Rex but it hits a wall of water so reflective Maya could see her mirror image in it. The wall drives forward, becoming a title wave, swooping in over all her monsters, making them all disappear.

“Hmm…” Maya bites her lip in frustration. It was too good to be true, but maybe Rex will pull of his lock after all. She wants this really badly but not just to see an awesome play but to hopefully see her own current limits manifest in front of her. Thinking about your limits is one thing. Being confronted by them is another.

REX’S TURN: “Not so great as you think you are. My turn. I summon Vicious Vapor Tyrannmaschine.” A huge engine with what looks like a rotating disk for a face hovers over the board. To Maya the gross and clunky thing looks a bit like the Meteo Crusher from Star Fox 64. Rex elaborates, “I use its effect and summon a banished Level 5 machine. Welcome back, Dinomist Spinos!” The huge machine lights up, spins its disk face around, and the hydraulic spinodon rematerializes. “Now I overlay them to Xyz Summon Cyber Dragon Nova and overlay it to Xyz Summon Cyber Dragon Infinity!” The two monsters become tiny stars and collide into each other. A black metal serpent emerges, then collapses to make way for a more powerful one. “Next I play Domain of Sanctity. We shuffle our hands in our Decks, I banish half of my Deck, and we both draw six cards.”

Maya comments, “That’s one goofy card. Bet you five hundred dollars it’ll be banned by next week.”

“It probably will, but why not use it while I can.”

Mathias jumps into the fray so fast he leaves a dust devil behind him as he locks Rex in a chokehold. “Where did you get a card like that? You stole it? Because if you did, you’re dead meat!”

“No! I did not!” Rex gags as much as he could. Mathias is so big and Rex so small Rex dangles a few feet from the ground. “Oh no! Vertigo! I’m gonna’ hurl!” Rex swoons, ready to vomit. Weevil scampers to Rex’s aid, trying to climb up Mathias’ thigh but looking like a perverted dog instead. Mathias wriggles his thigh to get Weevil off, screaming at Weevil to stop humping him. Everyone else groans in embarrassment.

Rex gags again and again, spitting out whatever words he can, insisting he did not steal his broken card but got really lucky opening a booster pack. Honest! Mathias lets him go and flicks Weevil away from his thigh. Both stooges crash into the ground. Mathias wipes his hands. “You’d better be right.” And he leaves Rex and Weevil to groan on the sand.

Rex dusts himself and resumes the duel, after complaining about sand in his shoes, “I activate Pot of Cupidity. I banish ten cards and draw two. I Pendulum Summon Dinomist Rex, 2 Dinomist Ceratops, Dinomist Brachion.” Four new Dinomist monsters march into play as if they are real dinosaurs: a T. Rex, two ceratops, and a brachiosaurus. “I overlay Rex and Ceratops to Xyz Summon Number 94: Crystalzero and overlay it to Xyz Summon Full Armored – Crystalzero Lancer. Then I overlay my second Ceratops and Brachion to Xyz Summon Constellar Pleiades.” The Rex and Ceratops collapse together to form an armored amazon from the depths of the sea who transforms into a more fearsome warrior, with an even more elaborate armor, dress, and girdle. The other Ceratops and Brachion form a guardian of the stars, adorned with the purest platinum armor and cape of the richest shade of violet.

Maya realizes at this point that Rex is about to win the game. Before Maya can gasp in terror, Rex commands, “Monsters, direct attack!” Cyber Dragon Infinity blasts her with a plasma beam as the two warriors, one of the depths the other of the stars, spear her. Maya’s spirit hits rock bottom. She lost. It’s all over. But then she realizes she still has Life Points. (Maya LP 5700 à 1150) A feeling of relief washes over her. She’s still in the game!

Rex grunts, “You’re lucky Domain of Sanctity cuts all battle damage I give by half this turn. I set three cards facedown. Turn end.”

MAYA’S TURN: “Oh.” A pit sinks to the depths of Maya’s stomach. Rex really did pull it off and it’s really strong. As Maya gazes onward at Rex’s monsters she realizes that Rex completely covered his bases. Can she activate a card? Infinity negates and destroys it. Summon a monster? Pleiades bounces it back to her hand. Synchro or Xyz Summon? Mischievous Mistuning messes up her monsters’ Levels. Take out his back row? Imperial Custom stops such a plan.

At this moment Maya realizes her limitations are made manifest, not just in dueling but also in life. As much as she always strives to break free from her chains, cuts through the red tape, tear down anyone who stands in her way, she always holds herself back to a degree. Why? She wondered about it for a while but now she thinks perhaps it may be this: if she is truly happy and free than she fears losing control. Of what? Herself? Her world? If she stays miserable she still feels in control, even though she never was in control. She never knew what it was like to be happy and at peace, not to constantly have a fire demonic and angelic burn inside her. Maybe it is time to try something new, not to kill the fire, but make a truce with it.

Now she has to find a strategy. Strange, how easy it is for her now. Solving problems of the inside world makes the outside world much easier to deal with. Now it is time to act. Maya walks to the center of the field, within close striking range of Rex’s monsters, just under the vicious jaw of his Cyber Dragon Infinity, and extends her hand.

The audience blinks in surprise, as does Rex. “You want to call it a draw?”

“Yes.”

“Hah!” Rex balks out a laugh. “Why would I want to do that? I control this game and you want me to throw it away? Get real! I expected more from someone like you!”

“My offer is a sign of my mercy, not yours. If you don’t accept my offer I will demolish you and your pathetic combo in three rounds. You can walk away with dignity or lose your Item Card and any respect people have for you.”

Maya’s words hit Rex hard as bullets. What does she mean? His combo is impenetrable and it isn’t even complete! All of a sudden his entire game feels as shaky as a house of cards, a sand castle Maya can blow away at any moment, a feeling that isn’t new at all. There was a time when he felt like a great duelist worthy of world recognition but years of humiliation and defeat, by Jonouchi, by Espa Roba, by Siegfried, by countless other people, thoroughly beat that feeling out of him.

“Y- You can’t break me. Prove it! I flip my two traps: Imperial Custom and Imperial Iron Wall. My combo is not completely finished but it shuts you down!”

“Very well. Round one! I set a monster and four facedown cards. My turn’s over.”

“Hah!” Rex desperately laughs. “That was your combo-shattering move. Such big words!” He looks Maya in the eye, a mistake. She’s not bluffing. Rex stammers, “I- I activate Pleiades’ effect. I bounce your facedown monster back to your hand.” The large holographic card

REX’S TURN: I summon Mean Steam Tyrannmaschine and use its effect to summon my banished Dinomist Plesios” A smaller version of the dimensional machine assembles itself into existence and reassembles the hydraulic plesiosaurus right after. “I overlay them to Xyz Summon Bahamut Shark and use its effect to summon Full Armored – Black Ray Lancer from my Extra Deck.” The two machines leave the field. Once more the large, dragon-like shark and trident-wielding guardian of Atlantis form. “And I use Pleiades’ effect again to bounce your facedown card back to your hand.” Another of Maya’s holographic cards flashes and disappears.

Maya secretly breathes a sigh of relief. Thank the Gods of Egypt it wasn’t one of her key cards!

“And I flip my trap: Vanity’s Emptiness. You can’t Special Summon! My combo is finally complete! Five monsters! Five face-up cards! It’s perfect!”

Weevil hollers from the sidelines, “You got this duel in the bag, Rex! Don’t let her get in your head and tear you down!”

“Don’t worry. I got this, Weevil. Go, monsters! Direct attack!” And with his command all his monsters lunge at Maya for the kill.

Maya braces herself. This is the moment of truth. “I activate Needle Ceiling! All your monsters are destroyed!”

“Not quite! Forget about Cyber Dragon Infinity? It negates and destroys your card!” His black metal serpent fires a photon bullet at Maya’s card, shattering it. “I got you cornered! Monsters, continue you’re attack!”

“I activate Quaking Mirror Force! All your monsters go facedown!” Her trap springs, summoning a fierce sandstorm, driving Rex’s monsters to cower for their lives. They crouch so low in defense they fall to the ground and disappear into five large cards on the field. “No Rex. I got you cornered.”

Rex realizes to his horror she is right. His entire field is full of facedown monsters he can’t flip face-up. He can’t summon anything or attack! And he can’t activate a spell or trap either since his back row is completely full! “I…” He sounds heartbroken. “I end my turn.”

“Wow.” Sophia gasps in astonishment. “A moment before Rex controlled the duel. Now he’s a sitting duck.”

Yukio shrugged. “She was America’s National Champion for four years for a reason.” He whispers, mimicking a line from Jurassic Park. “Clever girl.”

“I heard that!” Maya shouts from the sidelines.

MAYA’S TURN: Maya draws. Trapping Rex was only half the battle. Now she has him afraid, trapped, and cornered, she must, like a hunter, carefully plan her strike. Nothing short of a killing blow will work. “Round two! I set a card facedown. Turn end.

REX’S TURN: “There’s nothing I can do.” Rex sighs. “Turn end.”

MAYA’S TURN: “Final round! Get ready, Rex! I activate my own Pot of Cupidity. I banish my top ten cards and draw two. I activate Twin Twister. I discard a card to destroy Imperial Iron Wall and Prohibition!” Two tornadoes gather on Maya’s field and shoot out like bullets to Rex’s two cards, disintegrating them. “And since some of your cards were destroyed, Vanity’s Emptiness is destroyed too.” Rex groans as his card vanishes. “I Special Summon Lizardon with its effect and I activate Inferno Reckless Summon to summon two more from my Deck.” With Maya’s words a total of three flying red dragon-like dinosaurs swoop over the field.

“H- Hold on!” Rex stammers. “I activate Mischevious Mistuning. I increase one of your Lizardon’s Levels to 9.”

“That won’t help you. I overlay two Lizardon’s to Xyz Summon Stella Ptera!” Two red dinosaurs are replaced by a massive green pterosaur. “And I use it’s effect. I dethatch two Xyz Materials to bounce two cards to your hand.” The flying beast flaps its wings only once and two stormy whirlwinds wipe away Rex’s cards. “I activate my trap: Nanosaur Invasion! I banish a Mountain Ptera to summon all three of my banished Mountain Pteras!” A dimension portal yawns above for just long enough for all of Maya’s pterosaurs to fly out before it collapses in on itself. “And I overlay two of them to Xyz Summon Red-Eyes Flare Metal Dragon!” Two of the three pterosaurs circle each other, closer and closer, before colliding into each other to form a worm hole. A fiery dragon with scales as black as volcanic soot climbs out of the portal.

The creature roars at Rex as if recognizing an old enemy. “You just had to rub in it, didn’t you?” Rex groans.

Maya says, “D.D. Ancient Firebird is banished and I have at least two Dinosaur monsters on my field, so I Special Summon it!” A small, lithe, fiery orange dinosaur, resembling the most ancient birds, dances on the field. “I tune it and Mountain Ptera to Synchro Summon Dino Demon!” The ancient bird morphs into a gate of three green rings while the last pterosaur flies through it, vanishing in a column of light. The light vanishes, revealing a dinosaur so grotesque and burning with such fury as to look satanic. “I use its effect. I banish Lizardon your two facedown monsters, the one on my far right and my near left.” Dino Demon plucks down Lizardon high from the sky from the sky like fruit from a low-hanging branch, devouring it whole, and fires two blasts as huge as meteors, one after the other, at Rex’s monsters, vaporizing them effortlessly.

Maya explains, “Black Ray Lancer and Crystalzero Lancer can protect themselves from destruction once. Not when they’re facedown though. And for the last card: Dragon’s Mirror.”

“But you don’t have any dragons!” Rex objects.

“Not in my Deck, but I have a Dragon Fusion Monster that needs two Dinosaur monsters to be played, and I do have two Lizardons in my Graveyard thanks to Imperial Iron Wall.” Rex curses under his breath. Maya shouts, “I banish two Lizardon to summon Ancient Dragon of the Badlands!” An enormous enchanted mirror materializes on the field, its glass shines brightly and monstrous black dragon flies out.

Her path to victory all clear, Maya can finally let it all go. She snarls and flings all her fire at her opponent, roaring, “Ancient Dragon, destroy all Rex’s monsters!” And her obsidian dragon burns away the rest of Rex’s defenses. “Monsters, attack for game!” And her remaining monsters, her other black dragon and her freakish fiery dinosaur blast hellfire at Rex, ending the duel.

Maya: 1150 || Rex: 0

“Wow. Talk about an incredible combo.” Maximus comments. The rest of his team nodded, albeit cautiously. Sophia ran up to Maya to hug her while Yukio stared at her, frowning, shaking his head. Rex slumped his posture in disgust while Weevil tried to comfort him. Rex handed over his Item Card to Maya, sighing deeply. Now the team had five Item Cards: Millennium Puzzle, Millennium Ring, Millennium Rod, Millennium Key, Millennium Eye. Two more to go: Millennium Necklace and Millennium Scales.

“You know, it’s a real shame you can’t make any good locks anymore.” Rex complained. “The game’s so fast-paced and cards are so overpowered these days your opponent can just screw you over.”

Maya nodded understandingly, saying, “I hear you. Don’t get me wrong. I love locks and wish I could use more of them. Bakura is actually my favorite duelist of all time. He was the best strategist this game ever had. But back then the game was more like chess, a back and forth exchange where you had to consider your opponent more. Now this game is a dick-measuring contest… well, clit measuring contest in my case… Clits are bigger than dicks anyway… You just can’t see most of it… But that’s beside the point…”

“Are you like a lesbian supremacist or something?”

“No. I just hate frat boys and rich tech brats.”

“Ah, figures. I guess. Me and Weevil have to get more Item Cards. Next time we’ll pick on weak duelists, not crazy assholes like you. Bye.” And Rex and Weevil left.

Maya sighed in relief. It was a really tough duel. It was finally over. But she didn’t even get a few seconds of rest when Yukio, her nagging wife, began his lecture. “You pulled a really dirty trick on Rex. You know he and Weevil have a crippling lack of confidence and you exploited that, you manipulative snake. You talk to Rex about how to be a better duelist. But you’re no duelist.”

Yukio, like all true duelists, expected Maya to lurch back in shock and pain upon hearing his truths, but she merely smirked and put her hand to his face. “Honey, Yugioh is a game. There is no such thing as a true duelist. It’s a stupid label that means whatever people want it to mean, something Matthew did when we fought him. You’re not a samurai following bushido. You’re a gamer just as pathetic as the neckbeard you make fun of for playing World of Warcraft all day in his mother’s basement. And that applies to everyone else.

“One day your obnoxious and selfish attitude will get you killed.”

“I thought my smarmy, cocksure insolence would do that.”

“And you wonder why you’re never popular.”

The couple kept arguing as if they were married but ended their quarrel as suddenly as it began and before Sophia knew it they went back to talking like normal people. “Relationships are strange things.” Sophia noted to herself. She mulled over a decision she wanted to make. It would have enormous consequences but she felt it was something she needed to do, both for the team and for herself. She prodded her two companions, saying, “We have to go back. There is something I must do.